| jaar 1 | nr. 001 | 01-01-2020 |
Results of bio–potential measurements 2011 and 2012. Quotes from “the-effects-on-trees-of-pulsed-digitally-modulated-high-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-produced-by-em-transmitters” (.pdf) van Wageningen University, d.d. oktober 2013.
During the research in 2011 – 2012, it became clear that bio-potentials 1) in trees do change as a result of exposure to EM fields.
- Bio-potentials originate within biological tissue as potential differences that occur between compartments. Generally, the compartments are separated by a (bio)membrane that maintains concentration gradients of certain ions via an active mechanism.
Change in bio–potential
Forced transition by switching off the EM emitters at 13:00 hours on the ash tree in climate chamber A4.
On 9 October 2012, all the EM emitters present (WiFi router and UMTS) were switched off at 13:00 hours. There was a visible effect upon the value of bio-potential.
With this research into the effect of pulsed digitally-modulated high-frequency electromagnetic signals from EM-emitters upon trees, it has become clear that these signals do have an effect upon the level of electrical potential, including bio-potential, produced by the cells of a tree. Significant proof was established of interruptions to the exposure to EM fields. Wageningen University and Research Center were able to ascertain that the correct timings of switching the equipment on and off were carried out doubly-blind by municipalstaff of Alphen aan den Rijn.
Origin of Measured Signals
We have built various types of loggers, experimented with different electrodes on different places in the tree bark. Over and over again we asked ourselves the same question: what are we measuring, is this really the bio-potential of the tree? We started out in 2006 and kept on experimenting during these years. With all these various types of loggers and electrodes we now dare to confirm: Yes, the signals we are measuring originate in the tree. We can clearly define day and night rhythms as well as temperature dependencies. We also saw the influence of pulsed high frequency electromagnetic signals.
To be absolutely sure that we are measuring the right thing we frequently ran a “dummy” measurement in a plane piece of timber wood along with our experiments. The next picture shows the outcome of such “dummy” measurements. It looks like there is happening a lot, however, it all happens on a scale from -1 to +5mV. That are 8 steps of the 8192 possible digital values of the A/D converter. I.e. this signal is within the noise and offset area of the system.
Although we clearly showed over and over again that pulsed high frequency signals cause “something” to happen in the bio-potential level of trees we realize that the work is still not finished…..
Conclusion Since the start of our investigations back in 2006 we learned a lot about the interaction between electromagnetic fields and trees. Some things are still unclear but we learned that with a good setup and careful monitoring we can blindly tell by the outcome of our measurements if an electromagnetic field is switched on or off in a test cell.
The voltage change of input 1 (Ash tree 1) showed that there is an opposite influence on the bio potential, the DC value of the Ash tree: If the Wifi routers are switched on, there is almost no voltage measured in Ash , 1 and if the Wifi routers are switched off, the voltage is increasing up to 20 mV.
By turning off the Wifi and light, it seems that the voltage of Ash tree 2 (input 2) and the Horse chestnut tree (input 4) is more flattened than when the Wifi and light is on. It seems that beside the light, as we expected, Wifi has influence on the DC value of the plant. According to the measurement results of plot a to f, there is no change of the measured voltage with a large loop area (input 3). The measurements with a smaller loop area of plot d on the Ash tree (input 1) also didn’t show any change of the measured voltage compared with the measurements of plot a. Therefore the conclusion can be made that the DC voltage measurements of the data logger is not interfered by the electromagnetic field of the Wifi routers and the electronic ballast of the fluorescent tubes. However the DC value generated in the tree stems seem to be interfered by the generated external electromagnetic fields.
The day/night (Circadian) rhythm of the ash tree was visibly documented using the bio potential measured. The nocturnal period can be rec ognised by its flat plotting.
The nocturnal period from 20:00 hours on 30 August 2011 until 4:00 hours on 31 August 2011 is visible. All the EM emitters (WiFi router, UMTS and DVB-T) present were switched off from 12:00 hours 30 August 2012 until 12:00 hours on 31 August 2011. An effect upon the value of the bio-potential of the ash tree as a result of switching off the apparatus can in this case be discerned. Change in bio Change in bio Change in bio Change in bio–potential on 9 October 2012. Forced transition by means of switching off the EM emitters at 13:00 hours in climate chamber A4, ash tree.